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University at Buffalo Libraries

Guidelines for UB Instructors

Books, journal articles, book chapters, audiovisual materials, and software which are required for courses may be placed on Course Reserve. Collateral or recommended readings, including but not limited to homework solutions, lecture notes, and sample exams cannot be placed on Course Reserve. Contact UBLearns or the Law Library for other options.

Books and other materials such as videotapes are available for short loan periods. Journal articles and book chapters are available for reading and printing from computer terminals via the UB Libraries Web site.

All Course Reserve List forms are dated as they are received and are processed in that order.

Some materials requested for Course Reserve may not be immediately available in the library and will require longer processing time. They may have to be recalled from borrowers, obtained from other libraries, or ordered from publishers.


Submitting Course Reserve Lists

Use separate forms for each course. Be sure to include all of the requested information, including full bibliographic citations. Incomplete or illegible forms will be returned.

Each library will only accept and process lists for courses in the disciplines and at the levels served by that particular library. You cannot reserve materials in more than one library for the same course. Please direct requests for special handling to the appropriate Reserve Specialist.

You may submit lists electronically via the Web at: http://library.buffalo.edu/forms/reserve.html
Choose "Submit Course Reserve Lists" .

You may submit paper forms:
Paper forms can be obtained from any of the University Libraries, your Departmental Secretary, or you can print a paper form here. Submit completed Reserve List Forms to the appropriate Reserve Specialist that serves your discipline.

Please do not give students required reading assignments until you are certain your reserve list has been processed and the materials are available.

You may check the status of your Reserve list via the UB Libraries Web site at: http://library.buffalo.edu/reserve.

  • type in the UB Course Number.
  • Click on Go.
  • From the search results page choose your course number (this will give you a list of the material on Course Reserve) (Only courses for the current semester will display)

When selecting the type of Reserve loan period for books and other materials such as videotapes, keep in mind your course deadlines, length of readings, and size of classes/sections. There are five types of Reserve:

  • Two-hour/in-library loan-May be borrowed for two hours, but must stay within the library
  • Two-hour/overnight-May be borrowed for overnight use two hours before the library circulation desk closes and returned within one hour of the library circulation desk opening the following day (This option is not available at the Health Sciences Library.) (A library that is open 24 hours treats 12 AM as closing and 8 AM as opening for the purpose of this checkout period).
  • Twenty four hour
  • Three-day loan
  • Seven day

Faculty must provide a single copy of each journal article or book chapter to be placed on Course Reserve. After submitting your reserve list either electronically or in paper form, you must mail or drop off photocopies of the material at the appropriate library.

All photocopies must be 8 1/2 x 11 inch paper for scanning purposes. You must provide clean and legible copies.


Copyright Information

As we interpret the Fair Use provision of the Copyright Law, Title 17 of the United States Code, the University Libraries can accept for Course Reserve a single copy of a copyrighted article from a journal issue or a single chapter of a large copyrighted work (i.e., a book) without permission of the copyright holder.

Anthologies of copyrighted material cannot be accepted for Reserve.

Exceptions to the Copyright Law will not be made. Please refer to sections 106, 106A, 107 and 108 of the Copyright Law (Title 17, United States Code) for more information.

106. Exclusive rights in copyrighted work

Subject to sections 107 through 120, the owner of copyright under this title has the exclusive rights to do and to authorize any of the following:

  • (1) to reproduce the copyrighted work in copies or phonorecords;
  • (2) to prepare derivative works based upon the copyrighted work;
  • (3) to distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending;
  • (4) in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures and other audiovisual works, to perform the copyrighted work publicly;
  • (5) in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, including the individual images of a motion picture or other audiovisual work, to display the copyrighted work publicly; and
  • (6) in the case of sound recordings, to perform the copyrighted work publicly by means of a digital audio transmission.
106A. rights of certain authors to attribution and integrity
  • (a) rights of Attribution and Integrity. - Subject to section 107 and independent of the exclusive rights provided in section 106, the author of a work of visual art -
    • (1) shall have the right -
      • (A) to claim authorship of that work, and
      • (B) to prevent the use of his or her name as the author of any work of visual art which he or she did not create;
    • (2) shall have the right to prevent the use of his or her name as the author of the work of visual art in the event of a distortion, mutilation, or other modification of the work which would be prejudicial to his or her honor or reputation; and
    • (3) subject to the limitations set forth in section 113(d),shall have the right -
      • (A) to prevent any intentional distortion, mutilation, or other modification of that work which would be prejudicial to his or her honor or reputation, and any intentional distortion, mutilation, or modification of that work is a violation of that right, and
      • (B) to prevent any destruction of a work of recognized stature, and any intentional or grossly negligent destruction of that work is a violation of that right.
  • (b) Scope and Exercise of rights. - Only the author of a work of visual art has the rights conferred by subsection (a) in that work, whether or not the author is the copyright owner. The authors of a joint work of visual art are coowners of the rights conferred by subsection (a) in that work.
  • (c) Exceptions. - (1) The modification of a work of visual art which is a result of the passage of time or the inherent nature of the materials is not a distortion, mutilation, or other modification described in subsection (a)(3)(A). (2) The modification of a work of visual art which is the result of conservation, or of the public presentation, including lighting and placement, of the work is not a destruction, distortion, mutilation, or other modification described in subsection (a)(3) unless the modification is caused by gross negligence. (3) The rights described in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a) shall not apply to any reproduction, depiction, portrayal, or other use of a work in, upon, or in any connection with any item described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of the definition of "work of visual art" in section 101, and any such reproduction, depiction, portrayal, or other use of a work is not a destruction, distortion, mutilation, or other modification described in paragraph (3) of subsection (a).
  • (d) Duration of rights. - (1) With respect to works of visual art created on or after the effective date set forth in section 610(a) of the Visual Artists rights Act of 1990, the rights conferred by subsection (a) shall endure for a term consisting of the life of the author. (2) With respect to works of visual art created before the effective date set forth in section 610(a) of the Visual Artists rights Act of 1990, but title to which has not, as of such effective date, been transferred from the author, the rights conferred by subsection (a) shall be coextensive with, and shall expire at the same time as, the rights conferred by section 106. (3) In the case of a joint work prepared by two or more authors, the rights conferred by subsection (a) shall endure for a term consisting of the life of the last surviving author. (4) All terms of the rights conferred by subsection (a) run to the end of the calendar year in which they would otherwise expire.
  • (e) Transfer and Waiver. - (1) The rights conferred by subsection (a) may not be transferred, but those rights may be waived if the author expressly agrees to such waiver in a written instrument signed by the author. Such instrument shall specifically identify the work, and uses of that work, to which the waiver applies, and the waiver shall apply only to the work and uses so identified. In the case of a joint work prepared by two or more authors, a waiver of rights under this paragraph made by one such author waives such rights for all such authors. (2) Ownership of the rights conferred by subsection (a) with respect to a work of visual art is distinct from ownership of any copy of that work, or of a copyright or any exclusive right under a copyright in that work. Transfer of ownership of any copy of a work of visual art, or of a copyright or any exclusive right under a copyright, shall not constitute a waiver of the rights conferred by subsection (a). Except as may otherwise be agreed by the author in a written instrument signed by the author, a waiver of the rights conferred by subsection (a) with respect to a work of visual art shall not constitute a transfer of ownership of any copy of that work, or of ownership of a copyright or of any exclusive right under a copyright in that work.
107. Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use

Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section , for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include -

  • (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of acommercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
  • (2) the nature of the copyrighted work;
  • (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
  • (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of thecopyrighted work. The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors.
108. Limitations on exclusive rights: Reproduction by libraries and archives
  • (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106, it is not an infringement of copyright for a library or archives, or any of its employees acting within the scope of their employment, to reproduce no more than one copy or phonorecord of a work, or to distribute such copy or phonorecord, under the conditions specified by this section, if -
    • (1) the reproduction or distribution is made without any purpose of direct orindirect commercial advantage;
    • (2) the collections of the library or archives are (i) open to the public, or (ii) available not only to researchers affiliated with the library or archives or with the institution of which it is a part, but also to other persons doing research in a specialized field; and
    • (3) the reproduction or distribution of the work includes a notice of copyright.
  • (b) The rights of reproduction and distribution under this section apply to a copy or phonorecord of an unpublished work duplicated in facsimile form solely for purposes of preservation and security or for deposit for research use in another library or archives of the type described by clause (2) of subsection (a), if the copy or phonorecord reproduced is currently in the collections of the library or archives.
  • (c) The right of reproduction under this section applies to a copy or phonorecord of a published work duplicated in facsimile form solely for the purpose of replacement of a copy or phonorecord that is damaged, deteriorating, lost, or stolen, if the library or archives has, after a reasonable effort, determined that an unused replacement cannot be obtained at a fair price.
  • (d) The rights of reproduction and distribution under this section apply to a copy, made from the collection of a library or archives where the user makes his or her request or from that of another library or archives, of no more than one article or other contribution to a copyrighted collection or periodical issue, or to a copy or phonorecord of a small part of any other copyrighted work, if -
    • (1) the copy or phonorecord becomes the property of the user, and the library or archives has had no notice that the copy or phonorecord would be used for any purpose other than private study, scholarship, or research; and
    • (2) the library or archives displays prominently, at the place where orders are accepted, and includes on its order form, a warning of copyright in accordance with requirements that the Register of Copyrights shall prescribe by regulation.
  • (e) The rights of reproduction and distribution under this section apply to the entire work, or to a substantial part of it, made from the collection of a library or archives where the user makes his or her request or from that of another library or archives, if the library or archives has first determined, on the basis of a reasonable investigation, that a copy or phonorecord of the copyrighted work cannot be obtained at a fair price, if -
    • (1) the copy or phonorecord becomes the property of the user, and the library or archives has had no notice that the copy or phonorecord would be used for any purpose other than private study, scholarship, or research; and
    • (2) the library or archives displays prominently, at the place where orders are accepted, and includes on its order form, a warning of copyright in accordance with requirements that the Register of Copyrights shall prescribe by regulation.
  • (f) Nothing in this section -
    • (1) shall be construed to impose liability for copyright infringement upon a library or archives or its employees for the unsupervised use of reproducing equipment located on its premises: Provided, That such equipment displays a notice that the making of a copy may be subject to the copyright law;
    • (2) excuses a person who uses such reproducing equipment or who requests a copy or phonorecord under subsection (d) from liability for copyright infringement for any such act, or for any later use of such copy or phonorecord, if it exceeds fair use as provided by section 107;
    • (3) shall be construed to limit the reproduction and distribution by lending of a limited number of copies and excerpts by a library or archives of an audiovisual news program, subject to clauses (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (a); or
    • (4) in any way affects the right of fair use as provided by section 107, or any contractual obligations assumed at any time by the library or archives when it obtained a copy or phonorecord of a work in its collections.
  • (g) The rights of reproduction and distribution under this section extend to the isolated and unrelated reproduction or distribution of a single copy or phonorecord of the same material on separate occasions, but do not extend to cases where the library or archives, or its employee -
    • (1) is aware or has substantial reason to believe that it is engaging in the related or concerted reproduction or distribution of multiple copies or phonorecords of the same material, whether made on one occasion or over a period of time, and whether intended for aggregate use by one or more individuals or for separate use by the individual members of a group; or
    • (2) engages in the systematic reproduction or distribution of single or multiple copies or phonorecords of material described in subsection (d): Provided, That nothing in this clause prevents a library or archives from participating in interlibrary arrangements that do not have, as their purpose or effect, that the library or archives receiving such copies or phonorecords for distribution does so in such aggregate quantities as to substitute for a subscription to or purchase of such work.
  • (h) The rights of reproduction and distribution under this section do not apply to a musical work, a pictorial, graphic or sculptural work, or a motion picture or other audiovisual work other than an audiovisual work dealing with news, except that no such limitation shall apply with respect to rights granted by subsections (b) and (c), or with respect to pictorial or graphic works published as illustrations, diagrams, or similar adjuncts to works of which copies are reproduced or distributed in accordance with subsections (d) and (e).

Order Requests

If, after checking the UB Libraries Web site, you find that the University Libraries do not own the material you need, enter "Order" in lieu of a call number on the paper form or choose "Material needs to be purchased" on the electronic form.

PLEASE NOTE: It can take from three to eight weeks, or longer, to obtain and process ordered material. If the library is unable to purchase the item, you will be contacted directly. Reserve orders must be placed with the appropriate Reserve Specialist.


Personal Copies

Faculty members may place personal copies of materials on Reserve. However, the Libraries cannot be responsible for loss of or damage to such materials. Personal material will be labeled and made security sensitive. Unless otherwise requested, these items will be placed on Two-Hour/In-Library Use Only Reserve.

All personal copies will be returned by campus mail after the end of the semester unless other arrangements have been made.


Removal of Material from Reserve

All materials are automatically removed from the Course Reserve at the end of each semester. Please submit new course reserve lists for every semester.