The Architectural Scheme"
The Bridge of the Three Americas, viewed from the Delaware Park Casino. Photographer: C. D. Arnold, c1900. Source: American Monthly Review of Reviews, v. 23, no. 137 (June 1901), p. 677.
John Carrère, Chairman of the Board of Architects of the Pan-American Exposition, saw the exposition's layout as an "artistic composition." Formal symmetry governed the plan and uniformity of scale was one of the most important harmonizing factors. Since the architects also had the advantage of grounds that lay adjacent to the Frederick Law Olmstead designed Delaware Park, "it was apparent that the Exposition must be strongly influenced by its proximity to the Park; but, as it was out of the question to alter the Park, even to the extent of removing any great number of its beautiful trees, and it was therefore impossible to extend the Exposition into the Park, it was decided to extend the Park into the Exposition, ... and thus to make them part of each other."1
A Shaded Walk Near the Triumphal Bridge. Photographer: Undetermined. Source: Cosmopolitan, v. 31, no. 5 (September 1901), p. 538.
The Exposition view from the Casino and in Delaware Park. Proximity to Delaware park was advantageous to planners. The New York State Building is on the left of the "Bridge of the Three Americas." To the right is the roof of the Horticulture building.
The overall "block plan" was based in simple lines, with the main axis running north and south, surrounded by the secondary axes. Carrère referred to the main axis as the "Axis of the Esplanade," which took the visitor from the Triumphal Bridge to the Electric Tower. The major buildings were grouped on the secondary axes, with symmetry and balance maintained by placing buildings of different character and purpose, but similar size and structure directly opposite one another across the main axis.
" ... the visitor will see what is meant by "formality picturesquely developed" when looking at the attempt to balance two buildings as totally different in character, purpose, and design as the Horticultural Building on the one side of the Esplanade and the Government Building on the other, or the Electricity and Manufactures Buildings On the one side of the main axis and the Liberal Arts and the Agricultural Buildings on the other... ."2
Joann Thompson points out that "[t]he intention behind this arrangement was to achieve a unified effect, which did not necessarily imply an identical, neatly symmetrical image, but instead, a dialog of similar masses. So, in spite of the formality of the plan, an element of flexibility was not only desirable, but was actually incorporated into the designing of the whole."3 Thus while the buildings opposite each other across the main axis differed in design and ornamentation, they, in essence, were of similar size and shape. The maps below illustrate this "symmetry of scale." [Click on each to view larger versions.]
Map Showing the Main and Secondary Axes and Illustrating the Symmetry of Scale. Derived from the 1901 map, Plan of the Pan-American Exposition to be Held at Buffalo, New York, May 1 - Nov. 1, 1901, (Plan revised to April 15, 1901). Original map was drawn by C. E. Peltz and published in Buffalo, N.Y., 1901. From the collection of the University Archives, State University of New York at Buffalo.
Axes notes added in 2003; based on information found in John M. Carrère, "The Architectural Scheme," Art Hand-Book, Official Handbook of Architecture and Sculpture and Art Catalogue to the Pan-American Exposition. Ed. David Gray. Buffalo, N.Y.: David Gray, 1901.
Three-Dimensional Map Illustrating the Axes and Symmetry of Scale of the Exposition Plan. Derived from a rendering by Murray Smith, published by Orvis and Smith, Buffalo, N.Y., . Original is from the collection of the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society. In Kerry S. Grant, The Rainbow City : Celebrating Light, Color and Architecture at the Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901, Buffalo, N.Y. : Canisius College Press, 2001.
"The idea of a comprehensive view arranged along a dominant axis was one which figured frequently in turn-of-the-century City Beautiful schemes, for which Buffalo's exposition became an example."4
The canal, one of the more popular features of the exposition, may have served an entertainment function by affording visitors an opportunity to tour the Exposition by boat. To Carrère, however, the waterway had a more functional purpose in serving as the boundary of the Exposition's main architectural group. Beyond the canal lay the secondary buildings, restaurants and of course, the Midway. Carrère describes this:
"...In order clearly to define the importance of this architectural setting, and also to make room for the numerous secondary buildings and side-shows, which could not well be brought into harmony with this main part of the composition, the very interesting feature of the canal was adopted at the suggestion of the laymen of the Board. This canal places the main part of the scheme within well-defined and formal limits and permits of all the more freedom beyond its boundaries. It is the means of separating the discordant elements of the scheme and yet of harmonizing them."5
On the Canal Between the Stadium (left) and the Agriculture Building (right). Photographer/Engraver : Undetermined. Source: Cosmopolitan, v. 31, no. 5 (September 1901), p. 464.
On the Canal Near the Government Group. Photographer : Undetermined. Source: Pan-American Exposition Scrapbook [n.p., 1901?]. Courtesy of Kerry S. Grant
Gondola Landing — Grand Canal (Behind the Electric Tower). Photographer : Undetermined. Source: The Pan-American and its Midway, Philadelphia : J. Murray Jordan, 1901, p. 14.
The Grand Canal, with the Fisheries Building on the Right. Photographer : Undetermined. Source: Cosmopolitan, v. 31, no. 5 (September 1901), p. 463.
In approaching the Exposition, ideally, the visitor was to enter the grounds via the Lincoln Parkway Gateway. "From this setting, the full beauty of the Exposition unfolded as a meticulously designed asthetic experience."6 Indeed, Carrère's intention was to lead the visitor along the principal approach, through the park, "so that the spectator, as he approaches the Exposition, will see it develop gradually until he reaches the Bridge, when the entire picture will appear before him and almost burst upon him."7 It is unfortunate that this experience was missed by the majority of visitors, who, instead of walking into the Exposition through the main gate, arrived by rail and thus entered the grounds through the north gate (behind the Electric Tower.)8
The Approach From the Park (Looking South from the Triumphal Bridge). Photographer : C.D. Arnold (c1901). Source: The Pan-American Exposition Illustrated by C. D. Arnold. Buffalo, N. Y.: C. D. Arnold, 1901, p. 36.
Approaching the Triumphal Bridge From the South (Carrère's "ideal approach" to the Exposition). Photographer : C.D. Arnold (c1901). Source: The Pan-American Exposition Illustrated by C. D. Arnold. Buffalo, N. Y.: C. D. Arnold, 1901, p. 47.
Outside the Lincoln Gate, Looking North. Photographer : C.D. Arnold (c1901). Source: The Pan-American Exposition Illustrated by C. D. Arnold. Buffalo, N. Y.: C. D. Arnold, 1901, p. 50.
The "Progress of Man"
In addition to serving as components of Carrère's "artistic composition," the buildings of the Pan-American Exposition were designed and positioned to illustrate a more symbolic ideal which appealed to the Exposition planners. In the approach to and travel through the grounds, visitors would experience—through the sculpture, architecture and color—the "intellectual progress of man."
The concept originated with Karl Bitter, the Director of sculpture, who planned symbolic meaning to the exhibit of sculpture throughout the grounds.
Bitter envisioned a profusion of statuary and fountains decorating the grounds, illustrating in allegory the "Progress of Man." The concept not only supported but also extended the principal theme of the Exposition: "To celebrate the achievements of civilization during 100 years of development in the Western Hemisphere." Whereas the Exposition intended to focus on one century of progress, Bitter chose to illustrate man's story on an evolutionary scale beginning with representations of his origins. Very much influenced by the spirit of social Darwinism predominant at the time, Bitter saw in the Exposition an opportunity to depict in allegory and symbol the history of the development of humanity.9
In his sculpture plan, Karl Bitter described the meaning behind the placement of the principal buildings.
" … We observe that to the left, on the Esplanade, buildings [the Horticulture group] as situated containing, in a measure, the examples of our natural resources. … All these things, only Nature can provide. …
The other side of the Esplanade, surrounded principally by Government Buildings, invites us to speak of our people and our institutions. … The institutions of our country form a worthy parallel to our resources. … In distinct separation from the above two groups, we find another group of buildings devoted to Machinery and Transportation, Electricity, Manufacture, and the Liberal Arts. What is shown therein is neither a direct product of nature nor attributable to institutions, but solely to the genius of man, though on the basis of what material nature has provided and what freedom and liberty the institutions of his country allow him. Those buildings and the Court of Fountains, as well as the Mall, around which they are located, are therefore devoted to the allegorization of that idea."10
Map Illustrating Bitter's "Progress of Man" as Related to the Ground Plan of the Pan-American Exposition. Derived from the 1901 map, Plan of the Pan-American Exposition to be Held at Buffalo, New York, May 1 - Nov. 1, 1901, (Plan revised to April 15, 1901). Original map was drawn by C. E. Peltz and published in Buffalo, N.Y., 1901. From the collection of the University Archives, State University of New York at Buffalo.
Front of the Electric Tower. Photographer : Undetermined. Source: The Pan-American and its Midway, Philadelphia : J. Murray Jordan, 1901, p. [23.]
In the Exposition plan, the Electric Tower was the focal point of the composition. It represented "...the culmination of the comingling of Man and Nature, symbolically suggesting man's intellectual and physical achievement in subduing Nature and harnessing electrical power."11 Bitter also saw the Tower basin and display of cascades and fountains as representative of Buffalo and the Great Lakes. "Buffalo's importance, growth and prosperity are chiefly due to the Great Lakes System and the waterways on which it is located. Its commerce and wealth are a direct offspring of the 'Great Waters,' as the Indians called them."12 Even the coloring of the Electric Tower suggested "water," specifically the water of Niagara Falls. C.Y. Turner spoke of "the beautiful emerald green hue of the water as it curls over the crest of Niagara Falls. ... In the tower I have given it marked emphasis... ."13
A Definitive Style
Although Director of Architecture, John Carrère, intended to base the formal "scheme" of the Exposition on an identifiable architectural style, common throughout the plan, there was some question as to what that style would be. In its promotional publication, The Pan-American Exposition … Its Purpose and Plan, the Exposition Company explained the ambitions of the Board of Directors, with regard to architecture and theme:This is to be an American Exposition—North, South and Middle Americas and our Islands of the Seas. Neither Greece nor Rome, nor yet Turkey come into this thing. It shouldn't be particularly classic, Gothic or Byzantine. Perhaps we cannot get away altogether from the old principles of construction, but we can at least make an effort to exemplify American architectural ideas, if we can find them.14
At the turn of the 20th Century, however, there was still controversy as to what could be defined as a uniquely American architectural style. John Milburn, President of the Exposition Board of Directors, wrote of the Exposition's "grand idea—the bringing closer together the peoples of this hemisphere in their social, political and commercial relations."15 Thus, a style indigenous to both North and South America was certainly a logical consideration.
The United States Government Building. Modeled after a Spanish cathedral. Photographer : C.D. Arnold (c1901). Source: The Pan-American Exposition Illustrated by C. D. Arnold. Buffalo, N. Y.: C. D. Arnold, 1901, p. 48.
The Spanish-American mission style was the initial choice, although as Julian Hawthorne wrote of the Exposition's style in 1901, "[t]echnically, it is a liberal rendering of the Spanish Renaissance … it symbolizes our welcome to the genius of the Latins to mingle their strain with the genius of the Anglo-Saxon."16 The term "Spanish-Renaissance" appears to be used most often to describe the Exposition, both by contemporary and modern critics, although there is nearly universal agreement that the style was hardly "pure" in form and that there were conspicuous deviations.
Watercolor Sketch of an Exposition Restaurant. Artist: C.Y. Turner. Source: The Delineator, v. 58, no. 1 (July 1901) p. 75.
" … of all the buildings created, some speak of old mission architecture and some do not. But, still, happily, although their work ran the whole gamut of architectural orders, combinations and modifications, yet it came together in harmony. Much of it is Renaissance of the freest sort; but the Spanish-American idea is dominant there, and makes itself felt throughout."17
That the architects were allowed the freedom to deviate from Carrère's formal plan was due in part to the temporary nature of exposition architecture. Most of the buildings were constructed of staff—a mixture of plaster, gypsum and hemp usually reserved for decorative sculpture—applied over lath and iron frameworks. Since the buildings were only intended to last a season, architects could experiment with imaginative decorative effects that would not have been possible on permanent structures.
Details of a Wall of the Temple of Music. Photographer: C.D. Arnold, c1901. Source: From the collection of the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society. In Thomas Leary and Elisabeth Sholes, Buffalo's Pan-American Exposition, Charleston, SC : Arcadia Publishing, 1998, p. 34.
Applying Staff to the Temple of Music's Wood Frame. Photographer: Undetermined [C.D. Arnold ?]. Source: From the collection of the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society. In Thomas Leary and Elisabeth Sholes, Buffalo's Pan-American Exposition, Charleston, SC : Arcadia Publishing, 1998, p. 21.
"[The architect] looks upon an exposition as an opportunity for artistic experiment and the execution, in temporary materials, of every dream of his imagination, no matter how fantastic. The fact that these experiments are temporary encourages him to dare, and one single great success justifies, in his eyes, the entire experiment. He dares to do in an exposition, and is allowed to do, what no sensible person would think of attempting in permanent form."18
Carrère encouraged experimentation—within reasonable bounds—and the transient nature of the buildings afforded architects the freedom to try new ideas. Thus, The Pan-American Exposition was comprised of buildings incorporating decorative styles from numerous schools. One can see a drastic difference in the number and intricacy of decorative features when comparing staff-covered temporary buildings like the Temple of Music and Horticulture Building, to one designed to be permanent, the New York State Building, which was of the conservative Doric style and built with marble.
The New York State Building. Artist: Undetermined. [c1900 Pan-American Exposition Company]. Source: Over 100 Views Showing the Grandeur of the Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, New York--1901. Buffalo, N. Y.: Chas. J. Shults & Co., 1901.
The Temple of Music. Photographer : C.D. Arnold (c1901). Source: The Pan-American Exposition Illustrated by C. D. Arnold. Buffalo, N. Y.: C. D. Arnold, 1901, p. 54.
The Horticulture Building. Photographer : C.D. Arnold (c1901). Source: The Pan-American Exposition Illustrated by C. D. Arnold. Buffalo, N. Y.: C. D. Arnold, 1901, p. 4.
Architecture and Color
In keeping with the notion of a "unified scheme" in the architectural planning of the Exposition, Director of Color, C.Y. Turner was invited to become a member of the Board of Architects.
Watercolor Sketch of the Propylæa at the Pan-American Exposition, 1901. Artist : C.Y. Turner. Source: The Delineator, v. 58, no. 1 (July 1901) p. 74.
Turner, best known as a painter of murals, based his color scheme for the Exposition on Bitter's "Progress of Man" allegory. He wrote:
C. Y. Turner's Studio (Making Watercolor Drawings as Guides for Painting the Exposition Buildings). Photographer : Undetermined (probably C.D. Arnold). Source: Scientific American. November 10, 1900, p. 293
In considering a scheme of color treatment for the Pan-American Exposition, the Architecture, Sculpture, the purpose and character of the Exposition each had to be taken into account. The plan of Mr. Karl Bitter, Director of Sculpture, ... seemed to me a very logical and proper treatment of the Exposition ... . Taking it for granted, then, that as we enter the grounds from the Park through the forecourt, the causeway bids welcome to the visitors and the countries taking part in the Exposition, we would come upon the elementary conditions, that is, the earliest state of man suggested on one side, and primitive nature on the other. I concluded that the strongest primary colors should be applied here, and that as we advance up the grounds the colors should be more refined and less contrasting, and that the Tower, which is to suggest the triumph of man's achievement, should be the lightest and most delicate in color.19
C. Y. Turner's Studio - Grouping the Models of the Exposition Buildings. Photographer : Undetermined (probably C.D. Arnold). Source: Scientific American. November 10, 1900, p. 293.
Mark Bennett described Turner's process: "To produce the exquisite color effects of the Exposition, Mr. Turner procured from the architects small sketches of all buildings, from which models were made on the scale of one-sixteenth of an inch to the foot. These were grouped upon a platform 12 by 16 feet, according to the plan prepared by John M. Carrère, to whom was entrusted the arrangement of the ground plan of the Exposition. Each model was colored according to the general scheme and its relationship to surrounding buildings was studied. Even the color of the sky, the grass and flowers, the pools and fountains, was taken into consideration. Many of the models were painted several times before the proper color note was hit upon to complete the harmony."20
"Mr. Turner, in mapping out his color scheme, adhered to Mr. Bitter's idea of the evolution of man, and one who takes his first glimpse from the south will notice that the coloring upon the buildings at that point begins with the cruder colors, the strong reds, yellows, greens, and blues which the barbarian selects, and it gradually melts into orange reds, gray blues, buffs, and violets, until it culminates at the Electric Tower in ivory yellow, with a setting of the delicate green which repeats the chromatic note of Niagara Falls."— Ernest Knaufft. 21
Watercolor Sketch of the Tower Entrance, Electricity Building. Artist : C.Y. Turner.Source: The Delineator, v. 58, no. 1 (July 1901) p. 79.
The colors as applied to the principal buildings were described as follows: 22
- Horticulture—orange with details in brilliant blue, green, rose and yellow.
- Government—yellow, with details in primitive colors.
- Temple of Music—red.
- Machinery—greenish gray.
- Restaurant group—ivory, accented with green and gold.
- Electric Tower—ivory, yellow, gold and green.
- The roofs are generally of red tile, though prominent towers and pinnacles are in many cases decorated with green, blue green or gold.
- All buildings have a play of color about their entrances, balconies, pinnacles and towers.
The Pan-American Exposition was not the first exposition to use color in its architecture, but “it was the first attempt to completely unite a color scheme with the structures in an overall visual impression of meshed coloring.”23 The vibrant color scheme led to the Exposition being labeled as "The Rainbow City." Although most visitors seemingly approved of the vibrant coloring, it provoked from contemporary critics reactions "ranging from cautious approval to hoots of derision. ... The polychrome experiment looked unsettling and raucous to contemporary eyes blinded by the dazzling purity of the "White City" [1894 Chicago World's Fair.] In the light of expectations generated by the earlier fair, the planners of the Pan-American were courageous to adopt such a novel color scheme."24
Grounds at Twilight -- Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901. Artist : Undetermined. Source: From a postcard produced by the Gray Lithograph Company and printed by the Niagara Envelope Manufcturing Company, Buffalo, N.Y. c1901. Courtesy of Kerry S. Grant.
This same color scheme, the subject of controversy and conflicting opinions among critics, was viewed quite differently as a component of the Expositions nighttime illumination. In fact the illumination itself and the embellishing effects of the color scheme were almost universally applauded by critics:
… [T]wilight is, next to illuminated night, the enchanted hour at the Exposition. ... [W]hen the dimming of the low lights about you warns that the climax of the Exposition day has come, go down to where the great bridge meets the Esplanade and keep your eyes on the Electric Tower. Faintly the rose-pink color flushes the side of the tall shaft. The light of the elevator drops twinkling like a falling star through the grillwork of the tower, The rose deepens and deepens on tower and dome and pinnacle, and then while the throng on the Esplanade holds its breath the light slowly rises to the brightness of the sun but without the glare, the softness of the moon without its coldness. A wonderful pure, soft radiance falls over the air, a radiance which brings out every subtle harmony of color, every detail of fretted architecture, and, behold, that new wonder of the world-the Pan-American night-is born.25
"Electric Tower - Pan-American Exposition, 1901". Artist : Undetermined. Source: From a postcard produced by the Gray Lithograph Company and printed by the Niagara Envelope Manufcturing Company, Buffalo, N.Y. c1901. Courtesy of Kerry S. Grant.
…[H]e who would visit the exposition at the most opportune time would do well to behold it first at night, and his station point should be not at the Propylaea entrance, but at the southern end of the grounds, where, standing near "French's Washington," he may look northward over the Triumphal Causeway between the great pylons toward the Electrical Tower. Here he will see a unique and imposing sight, that outdoes Chicago, Nashville, Atlanta, Omaha,-a sight the world has never seen before. At 8 o'clock the ivory city lies half-veiled in the dusk, when suddenly, but gradually, on every cornice, every column, every dome, break forth tiny pink buds of light as though some eastern magician were commanding a Sultan's garden to bloom. A moment more, and the pink lights glow larger and take on a saffron hue, and the whole exposition lies before us illumined by 500,000 electric flames (the eight-candle power incandescent light which Mr. Edison, who developed it, has proclaimed his pet)-and these delicate lights, some single, some bunched, bring out a thousand delicate tints, now playing hide and seek and many cartouches, terminals, and arabesques, now Rembrandting the stucco reliefs, and delicately toning down the color, till the effect is strikingly allegro.26
Of course, the thoughts of Ellen Arnold, an Exposition visitor from Connecticutt, sum up what seemed to be the prevailing opinion of critics and visitors alike,27
"The illumination was something more than wonderful – indescribable –"
General View of Illuminated Exposition Buildings From the West, Taken From Outside the Grounds. Photographer : Undetermined. Source: Over 100 Views Showing the Grandeur of the Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, New York--1901. Buffalo, N. Y.: Chas. J. Shults & Co., 1901, p. 40.
- John M. Carrère, "The Architectural Scheme," Art Hand-Book, Official Handbook of Architecture and Sculpture and Art Catalogue to the Pan-American Exposition. Ed. David Gray. Buffalo, N.Y.: David Gray, 1901, p. 10. See also Joann M. Thompson. The Art and Architecture of the Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, New York, 1901. Unpublished dissertation. Rutgers University, the State University of New Jersey, 1980, p. 31 and Kerry S. Grant, The Rainbow City: Celebrating Light, Color and Architecture at the Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901. Buffalo, N. Y.: Canisius College Press, 2001, p. 10.
- Carrère, p. 15-16.
- Christian Brinton, "Art at the Pan-American Exposition," The Critic, v. 38 (June 1901) p. 512 and Walter Cook, "The Exhibition at Buffalo: Some of the Ideas Which Have Determined its Artistic Character — the Buildings and Grounds," Scribner's Magazine, v. 29 (June 1901) p. 765; in Thompson, p. 31.
- Thompson, p. 31. The "City Beautiful Movement" was a reaction to the increasingly grimy and industrial nature of 19th century cities. City Beautiful proponants called for a harmonious environment characterized by a paradigmatic arrangement of buildings, open garden spaces and controlled traffic paths. John Brisben Walker wrote of the Pan-American Exposition as a model for the city of the future. See Walker's "The City of the Future—A Prophecy," The Cosmopolitan, v. 31, no. 5 (September, 1901) pp. 473-475. For an informative look at the "City Beautiful Movement" and Washington, D.C.'s example, see Julie K. Rose's City Beautiful: the 1901 Plan for Washington D.C. , URL: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~cap/citybeautiful/dchome.html.
- Carrère, p. 15-16.
- Grant, p. 19.
- Carrère, p. 15.
- Thompson, p. 32; Grant, p. 19.
- Grant, p. 12.
- Karl Bitter, "The Sculpture Plan," Art Handbook, 1901, pp. 49-50.
- Thompson, p. 35.
- Bitter, p. 50.
- C.Y. Turner, "The Color Scheme," Art Handbook, p. 20; Grant, p. 13.
- Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo May 1 to November 1, 1901. Its Purpose and Plan. [Buffalo, N. Y. : The Pan-American Exposition Company], 1901, p. 28.
- John G. Milburn, "The Purposes of the Exposition," Art Handbook, p. 7.
- Julian Hawthorne, "Some Novelties at the Buffalo Fair," The Cosmopolitan, v. 31, no. 5, (September, 1901) p. 485.
- Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo May 1 to November 1, 1901. Its Purpose and Plan. p. 30; Joanna Wood refers to the style as "American Renaissance" in "My Personal View," The Criterion, May 19, 1901, p. 12. In "The Pan-American on Dedication Day," The American Monthly Review of Reviews, v. 23, no. 137 (June 1901), William Hotchkiss describes the architecture as "romantic and picturesque" using the term "Free Renaissance" to describe the buildings' bracketed eves, airy pinnacles, grilled windows, open loggias, square towers, fantastic pilasters and tile roofs. C.Y. Turner, Director of Color, wrote, “… the Spanish Renaissance was in the minds of most of [the Board of Architects] the most suitable style. At a later period, this was changed to Free Renaissance, which, of course, permitted the introduction of Italian, German and French Renaissance,” in “Organization as Applied to Art,” The Cosmopolitan, v.31 no.5 (September 1901) p.493; Also using this term is Kerry S. Grant, who offers detailed descriptions of the style and coloring of individual buildings in The Rainbow City: Celebrating Light, Color and Architecture at the Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901. Buffalo, N. Y.: Canisius College Press, 2001. Finally, see Joann Thompson's dissertation, The Art and Architecture of the Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, New York, 1901, (Rutgers University, the State University of New Jersey, 1980) where the terms used to describe the architecture at the Pan-American Exposition include"quasi Spanish style," "free-form Spanish-oriented structures" and "fantasy buildings of a freely interpreted Spanish style."
- Carrère, p. 12.
- Turner, p. 20.
- The Pan-American Exposition and How to See It : A Complete Art Souvenir, ed. Mark Bennett, Buffalo, NY : Goff Company, 1901, [pp. 9-10.]
- 21. Ernest Knaufft. "Artistic Effects of the Pan-American Exposition." The American Monthly Review of Reviews, v.23, no.137 (June 1901) p. 689. In a lecture by Barbara Seals Nevergold and Peggy Brooks-Bertram, founders of the Uncrowned Queens Project, it was suggested that Turner's color scheme may have also been analogous to prevalent attitudes regarding race and the relationship of "white" America to its African- and Native-American populations as well as its "darker" and "subordinate" Central and South American neighbors. Darker, cruder colors (or skin) were viewed as savage, primitive and, as Knaufft states, "barbarian" whereas with progress, evolution and civilization, man grew to be represented by colors that were lighter, pastel-like and more subtle—in essence, "whiter." While there is no direct evidence to show that the use of color to convey this attitude was a conscious decision of Turner or the Exposition planners, the larger societal tendency to equate dark to "primitive" and light to "civilized," must not be discounted. From a lecture presented on"The Role and Representation of African Americans and Persons of Color in the Pan-American Exposition. Presented at the University Archives, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, July 12, 2001. More information on this topic may be found in the history section of the Uncrowned Queens web site, URL: http://wings.buffalo.edu/uncrownedqueens/files/history.htm.
- Bennett, [p. 10.]
- Thompson, p. 86.
- Ibid., pp. 79, 85. Also see Grant, pp. 113-116 and Thomas Leary and Elisabeth Sholes, Buffalo's Pan-American Exposition, Charleston, SC : Arcadia Publishing, 1998, pp. 27-46. Katherine V. McHenry wrote in the June 1901 issue of Brush and Pencil, "Whatever be the popular verdict, whether the consensus of opinion be in favor of a monochrome scheme, such as was employed at Chicago in 1893, or of a varied, symbolic scheme, such as prevails in the Pan-American, it is to the credit of the promoters of this latter exposition that they had the hardihood to undertake what former exposition managers feared to attempt, and the ability to carry it out to a successful issue," (p.156).
- Mary Bronson Harrt, "How to See the Pan-American Exposition," Everybody's Magazine, v.5, no.26 (October 1901.) The full text of Harrt's article is available on Sue Eck's "Doing the Pan..."
- Knaufft, p. 687.
- Ellen Arnold, in a letter to her sister Hannah Allen of Putnam, Conn., September 12, 1901. Private collection. Courtesy of Brenda Battleson.