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EndNote Frequently Asked Questions

Technical Support is available through the EndNote web site. If you have not done so already, you may want to check their Common Questions to find the answers you need.

What is EndNote?

EndNote is a software tool for managing references. EndNote helps you organize bibliographic references to journal articles, book chapters, Web sites and other information sources. References can be downloaded from UB Libraries' databases directly into a personal EndNote database known as a Library in EndNote terminology. Bibliographies can be created and formatted in over a thousand standard style formats including APA, MLA, Chicago, Vancouver, and others. EndNote is a product from Web of Science Group / Clarivate Analytics.

Where can I get a copy of EndNote?

Because of a University Libraries funded, site-wide license, all current University at Buffalo students, faculty, and staff members can download a free copy of EndNote. Both Windows and Mac versions are available.

What are the computer requirements to run EndNote?

The EndNote site describes the requirements for Windows and Mac computers. It is important to be running current versions of MS Word as well as EndNote, since EndNote contains many integration features with MS Word to facilitate production of bibliographies.

What is an EndNote library, and how many should I create?

Within the program, a Library is simply a personal (locally saved) database of downloaded, saved references. At first glance, it might seem reasonable to create a separate Library for each project or paper. However, that approach scatters one's references among many files making it far more difficult to find and reuse references from earlier projects and combine them into bibliographies for new projects. It generally is better to use the groups feature, keywording and the powerful search features of EndNote to create needed subgroups of references within a single Library. One can store an unlimited number of references in a single Library on the desktop version.

How do I get references into an EndNote Library?

Depending on the database, references in bibliographic databases can be 1) searched directly from inside EndNote using Connection Files and then immediately saved to the Library, 2) imported from a previously downloaded file created by searching an on-line database prior to opening EndNote by using Import Filters, or 3) using the special Direct Export feature inside certain databases, especially those provided by Ovid and Thomson. References can also be typed manually into the database, obviously much more time consuming than capturing references from the many databases provided to UB patrons by the University Libraries. EndNote also has the ability to import references from a few other bibliographic management software programs including ProCite, Reference Manager, and Refer/BibIX.

What is a Connection File?

EndNote uses Connection Files to let you connect directly to a large number of online bibliographic databases, search for the references, and retrieve those references all without leaving EndNote. These individual Connection Files in EndNote provide the information required to connect to virtually any Z39.50 compliant database. You may also wish to check out EndNote's Connection Files Page which contains their full list of downloadable Connection Files. Note that most of these Connection Files already are included in the Connect folder that installs when you load the EndNote program. Note that Connection Files for UB subscription databases will not work off-campus.

What are Import Filters?

Import Filters are files used by EndNote to decipher information that has been downloaded from an online or CD-ROM database. A filter is a set of instructions that places information such as author, title, source, and publication year downloaded from a specific database into the correct field in the EndNote Library. A whole series of filters (located in the Filters Folder) comes with EndNote and automatically installs when you load the program. You can also customize Import Filters or create your own. Additional EndNote Import Filters are available for downloading on the EndNote site. The filters can be grouped according to the database providers, i.e. the company or institution that provides the content.

How does the Direct Export feature work, and how is it different from Connection Files?

Certain databases contain a special download button that will automatically open up and send your search results directly to EndNote, pick the correct import option, and start the import process automatically. All you need to do is choose the EndNote Library into which the data should be imported. This "direct export" does away with the additional steps of saving the references to a text file, and then importing that file with the appropriate Import Filter. Many online databases, such as Highwire Press, Ovid, OCLC, ProQuest, and the Web of Science, provide Direct Export of references into EndNote. The Direct Export option requires EndNote to be available on the machine you are using.

With Direct Export, you start from inside a web-based database and automatically open up and send references to EndNote. Connection Files are used from inside a current EndNote session and connect out to a web-based database allowing references to be pulled back into an EndNote Library.

What is a Z39.50 compliant database? Why is it important?

EndNote Connection Files only work with Z39.50 compliant databases. Z39.50 is a standard communications protocol that facilitates information retrieval across diverse collections of data resources. Many of the databases listed on the University Libraries Databases page are Z39.50 compliant.

Health Sciences users of EndNote might be interested in searching PubMed without charge at the National Library of Medicine. Within EndNote, choose Tools , Connect , PubMed(NLM) , then connect. The PubMed search service provides access to over 22 million references in MEDLINE, Pre-MEDLINE, and additional life science journals, so limit your search!

Can I download records from the University Libraries' Catalog?


You can easily export to EndNote from UB Libraries' Everthing search and Catalog. You can export citations for single records by clicking on EndNote Online or EndNote Desktop in the "Send to" menu for an individual record. You can export citations for multiple records by first adding items to your favorites and then using "Push to" EndNote Online or EndNote Desktop for items you select in your list of favorites.

You may alternately search the University Libraries' Catalog from within the EndNote interface by using the University at Buffalo Connection file - but searching directly with Everything or the Catalog will likely be easier and produce more results.

A good alternative for getting book references into EndNote is to search WorldCat, a a mega-library catalog containing more than 100 million records contributed by 20,000 libraries around the world.

Can I use EndNote and download records when using a computer off-campus?

As long as the computer you are using has reasonably current versions of EndNote and MS Word installed on it, your Library of references is fully available and can be used to create and edit bibliographies in MS Word. New references can be added to your Library by manual input, using Import Filters to transfer in downloaded references from properly saved files, and via the Direct Export option. However, for those databases requiring a University Libraries subscription, Connection Files will NOT work, as they bypass the authentication process that happened automatically when you are on-campus.

Why did information from imported references end up in the wrong EndNote fields?

Neither EndNote filters nor information in the databases are perfect. If a small number of references did not import properly, manual editing is always possible. If there are serious problems with a large number of references, then either the Import Filters, Connection Files, or the format within the database used to downloaded the references probably needs modification. For the latest import filters, connection files and software updates see the EndNote website.

How do I type in a corporate author?

Corporate authors should be placed in the author field, but be sure to insert a comma at the end of the name (University at Buffalo , ). The comma stops EndNote from treating the entry like a personal name and automatically inverting it. The comma is removed when the reference is formatted for use.

Is it possible to transfer a Windows EndNote Library to EndNote on a Macintosh (and vice-versa)?

EndNote Libraries that are created on the Mac version of EndNote (any version) or the PC version of EndNote (any version) are compatible across platforms; they can even be shared over a mixed-platform network. No conversion is necessary. Details are provided in the article, "EndNote: Moving, backing up, or transferring libraries to another computer."

How do I create bibliographies in MS Word?

EndNote and MS Word provide great flexibility in creating bibliographies. References can be inserted from EndNote as the paper is written and a bibliography can be automatically created at the end. Typically, both EndNote and MS Word are open to facilitate transfer of references between the two programs. Stand alone bibliographies can also be created by transferring in references, choosing whatever style is required for the paper. Once installed, an EndNote tool bar should appear when MS Word is opened. If the EndNote tool bar has been turned off, click on View: Toolbars and check EndNote X6 to display the toolbar in MS Word. For details on inserting footnotes and bibliography creation, please consult the Help command inside EndNote.

Are there any legal restrictions on the use of the EndNote software?

The UB site license for EndNote restricts usage to all currently enrolled UB students and current UB faculty and staff. These authorized users may install the software on their personal computers, including laptops and home computers. The UB site-wide license for EndNote is funded by the University Libraries, with partial support from student technology fees.

Is help available?

For help with research resources, contact your subject librarian. Technical support is available at the EndNote Technical Support website.